The agreement also provides that withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would also remove the state from the Paris Agreement. The conditions for exiting the UNFCCC are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. The agreement does not contain provisions on non-compliance. The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets.  Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. . . .